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Glossario di Nomenclatura zoologica

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ABERRATION
a term which, if used to denote a number of individuals within a species, unequivocally signifies infrasubspecific rank.
ABBREVIATION
a shortened form of a word or title. In zoological works genus-group names cited in binomial names of species are often abbreviated to one or two letters, which should always be followed by a full stop, and not used on the first mention of a name; similarly for specific names cited in trinomial names of subspecies.
ACT, NOMENCLATURAL
a published act which affects the nomenclatural status of a scientific name or the typification of a nominal taxon; available nomenclatural act - one that is published in an available work; invalid - any nomenclatural act which is not valid under the provisions of the Code (qv); unavailable - one published in an unavailable work; valid - one that is accepted under the provisions of the Code ie the earliest available act not contravening any provision of the Code.
ADOPT
to use an unavailable name as the valid name of a taxon in a way which establishes it as a new name with its own authorship and date
affinis, afin.
affinity, relationship, sometimes misleadingly employed as a synonym for phenetic similarity. (= akin to).
AGGREGATE
a group of species, other than a subgenus, within a genus; or a group of subspecies within a species. An aggregate may be denoted by a group name interpolated in parentheses.
alii, aliorum, al.
others, of others.
ALLOTYPE
paratype (qv) of the opposite sex to the holotype; term not regulated by the Code (qv).
AMBIGUOUS NAME
see Nomen ambiguum.
ANIMAL
for the purposes of the Code (qv) includes Metazoa and protistan taxa whenever they are or have been treated as animals for nomenclatural purposes.
ANONYMOUS
- of a work: one that does not state the name(s) of the author(s)
- of a name or nomenclatural act: one of which the authorship cannot be determined from the work itself
- of an author: one whose identity cannot be determined from the work itself
APPLICATION TO THE COMMISSION
any zoologist may submit nomenclatural problems to the Commission (qv). These are published in the Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature.
APPROVED NAME
one given approval by the Commission (qv) for use in nomenclature.
apud
with, in the work of.
ARTICLES
the mandatory provisions of the Code (qv).
ARTIFICIAL CLASSIFICATION
classification (qv) based on convenient or conspicuous diagnostic characters without attention to characters indicating relationship; often a classification based on a single arbitrarily chosen character, rather than an evaluation of the totality of characters.
as such
being strictly what has been cited e.g. 'a photograph as such' is an illustration on light-sensitive paper, not one printed in a work.
auctorum, auct., auctt.
of authors, often given to indicate that a name is used in the sense of a number of ubsequent authors and not in its (different) sense as established by the original author.
auctorum non, auct. non
not of authors.
AUTHOR
the person(s) to whom a work, a scientific name, or a nomenclatural act is attributed.
AUTHOR CITATION
the name of the authority (qv) for a taxon name, when cited, should follow the taxon name without any intervening marks or punctuation. Its citation is optional and may or may not be followed immediately by the year. Examples:-
A.... Smith 1970
Smith was the first person to validly publish the name A...., which he did in 1970.
A.... Smith in Jones 1970
Smith was the first person to validly publish the name A...., which he did within a publication by Jones in 1970.
A.... Smith 1970 ex Jones 1942
Smith was the first person to validly publish the name A.... in 1970, but which had formerly been used by Jones in 1942, but which he had never validly published.
A.... b.... (Smith) 1970 or A.... b.... (Smith 1970)
Smith was the first person to validly publish the species name b.... in 1970, but which at the time he put in combination (qv) with another genus name.
A.... c.... (Smith) Jones
Smith was the first person to validly publish the species name c...., but which at that time he put in combination (qv) with another genus name. Jones is responsible for the transfer of the species to genus A.....
A.... b.... [Smith]
The name was originally published anonymously but from external information the author is known to be Smith.
A.... Smith [1970]
Date of publication established solely from external evidence e.g. publisher's correspondence.
A.... Smith 1970 non Jones 1860 nec Brown 1967
The genus referred to is specifically that described by Smith 1970 and not those homonymous (qv) genera described by Jones 1860 or Brown 1967.
A.... b.... Smith 1970 sensu Jones 1977
A.... b.... Smith : Jones
A.... b.... : Jones
These all mean that A.... b.... was originally published by Smith, but that this refers specifically to a subsequent, more restricted usage of the name i.e. as used by Jones (: may sometimes be given as ;).
A.... b.... auct. non Smith 1970
A.... b.... sensu auct. non Smith 1970
These refer to instances of the use of A.... b.... by all authors for a taxon which is other than that as published by Smith 1970.
A.... b.... Smith, partim Jones
A.... b.... Smith, emend. Jones
These both mean Smith originally published A.... b...., but later Jones further subdivided the species so that its diagnosis was more limited than that originally published by Smith. See also Emended diagnosis.
AUTHORITY
the name of the author of a taxonomic name, cited after the name. See also: Authorship, Author citation.
AUTHORSHIP
the author of a taxonomic name is the person who alone is responsible for both the name and for the conditions which make it available (qv) i.e. the diagnosis etc. See also: Author, Author citation.
AVAILABLE NAME
any name which conforms to all mandatory provisions of the Code (qv). There are general requirements of publication and date, language, name formation etc. An available name is not necessarily a valid name (qv), as an available name may be in synonymy (qv). Conversely a valid name must always be an available one. Available names include nomen inviolatum, - conservandum, - perfectum, - vanum, - correctum, - substitutum, - imperfectum (all qv).
BINOMEN or BINOMIAL NAME
the combination of two names, the first being a generic name and the second a specific name, that together constitute the scientific name of a species; any interpolated names are not counted as components of a binomen.
BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE
the system of nomenclature in which a species, but no taxon or any other rank, is denoted by a combination of two names
BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE, PRINCIPLE OF
see Principle of binomial nomenclature.
BULLETIN OF ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE
the official periodical of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature.
CASTE
in social insects, a group of individuals, belonging to a particular species or subspecies, differing in form from other groups of individuals within the same species od subspecies (e.g. in bees - workers, drones, queens).
CHANGE, MANDATORY
a change in spelling of a name required by the Code (qv).
CHARACTER
any attribute of organisms used for recognizing, differentiating or classifying taxa.
CHEIRONYM
see Manuscript name.
citatus, - a, - um, cit.
cited.
CLADISTIC CLASSIFICATION
classification (qv) based on 'recency of common descent', i.e. categories depend on the position of the branching points on the inferred phylogenetic tree.
CLASSIFICATION
the ordering of organisms into groups on the basis of their relationships.
CODE
International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. An Authoritative document containing a system of rules and recommendations to be followed in giving a scientific name to an animal or animal group. Adopted by the International Congresses (qv) of Zoology (more recently the International Union of Biological Sciences)and Administered by the International Commission (qv) on Zoological Nomenclature. The most recent version of the Code is the Fourth Edition published in September 1999 and taking effect on January 1st 2000.
COLLECTIVE GROUP
an assemblage of species, or stages of organisms (e.g. eggs or larvae), that cannot be allocated with confidence to nominal genera. Names proposed or used for collective groups are treated as genus-group names but special provisions apply to them [Article 42.2.1].
COLLECTIVE-GROUP NAME
- a name established expressly for a collective group
- a name established for a nominal genus or subgenus and later used for a collective group
COLLECTION
an assemblage of specimens compiled and maintained for purposes of study and/or display.
COMBINATIO NOVUM, COMB. NOV.
new combination - a combination (qv) validly published for the first time.
COMBINATION
the name of a species or subspecies consisting of the name of the genus followed by the specific or specific plus subspecific names.
COMMISSION
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN). The duties and operation of the Commission are regulated by the Code (qv), and the powers and duties of the Commission are authorized by the International Zoological Congresses (qv).
COMMON NAME
see Vernacular name.
COMPOUND NAME
one that is formed by the union of two or more basic components, excluding prefixes and suffixes. e.g. striatoradiatus, novaeguineae, fritzmuelleri, c-album.
CONDITIONAL
- of the proposal of a name or a type fixation: one made with stated reservations
- of the inclusion of a taxon in another taxon at a higher rank: made with stated reservations
confer, cf.
compare.
CONGENERICITY
congeneric species are species belonging to the same genus. Congeneric applied to generic names usually implies that the names refer to the same taxon i.e. synonymous genera.
CONSERVE
to set aside or modify any provision of the Code so as, e.g.
- to preserve or permit the use of a name as a valid name by removing the obstacles to such use
- to preserve the use of a name in a taxonomic sense that would otherwise be incorrect
- to deem a work to be published or available despite its not satisfying the normal criteria
In each case conservation is by a ruling of the Commission using its plenary power.
CONSERVED NAME
a name otherwise unavailable or invalid that the Commission, by the use of its plenary power, has enabled to be used as a valid name by removal of the known obstacles to such use (see CONSERVE).
CONSPECIFICITY
conspecific subspecies are subspecies belonging to the same species. Conspecific applied to species names usually implies that the names refer to the same taxon i.e. synonymous species.
COORDINATION, PRINCIPLE OF
see Principle of coordination.
CORRECTED NAME
see Nomen correctum.
CORRECT ORIGINAL SPELLING
see Original spelling.
CORRIGENDUM
a note published by an author, editor, or publisher of a work, expressly to cite one or more errors or omissions in that work together with their correction.
COTYPE
a term not recognized by the Code, formerly used for either syntype or paratype, but that should not now be used in zoological nomenclature [Recommendation 73E].
DATE OF PUBLICATION
of a work (and of a contained name and nomenclatural act): the date on which copies of the work become available by purchase or free distribution. If the actual date is not known, the date to be adopted is regulated by the provisions of Article 21.2-7.
DECLARATION
a minor amendment to the Code (qv) for immediate incorporation, published in the Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, to remain in force until ratified or rejected by future International Zoological Congresses (qv).
DEEM
to consider or rule something to be what it may or may not be.
DEFINITION
a statement in words that purports to give those characters which, in combination, uniquely distinguish a taxon [Articles 12 and 13].
DENIED NAME
see Nomen negatum.
DESCRIPTION
a more or less complete statement of the observed characters of a taxon, without any special emphasis on those which distinguish it from other closely related taxa. See also: Definition, Diagnosis, Original description, Redescription.
DESIGNATION
the nomenclatural act of an author or the Commission in fixing, by an express statement, the name-bearing type of a newly or previously established nominal genus, subgenus, species, or subspecies.
ORIGINAL DESIGNATION
the designation of the name-bearing type of a nominal taxon when it is established.
SUBSEQUENT DESIGNATION
the designation of the name-bearing type of a nominal taxon published after the nominal taxon was established.
DIACRITIC MARKS
Article 27 rules that diacritic marks, apostrophes or diaereses are not to be used in a taxonomic name and are to be deleted from such names originally published with them. [See Article 32.5.2]. The German umlaut sign deleted from a vowel should be replaced by 'e' inserted after the vowel, but only for taxonomic names based on German words and published before 1985.
DIAGNOSIS
a statement in words that purports to give those characters which differentiate the taxon from other taxa with which it is likely to be confused.
DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS
the characters, or most important characters, which distinguish a taxon from other similar or closely related taxa. See also: Diagnosis.
DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
see Diagnosis.
DIRECTION
a term now abandoned; under previous editions of the Code, a statement published by the Commission, giving the result of a vote completing or correcting a ruling given in an Opinion. Directions have been replaced by Official Corrections (qv).
DISCLAIMER
a statement in a work, by an author, editor or publisher, that
- the entire work or
- all or specified names and nomenclatural acts in it are to be excluded for purposes of zoological nomenclature
DIVISION
- a rank that if treated as a division of a genus or subgenus is deemed to be of subgeneric rank for the purposes of nomenclature
- a taxon at the rank of division
DOUBTFUL NAME
see Nomen dubium.
DUBIOUS NAME
see Nomen dubium.
ELEVATION IN RANK
see Status.
ELIDE
to deliberately omit one or more letters within a word (as in Article 29.3.1.1).
ELIMINATION, FIXATION BY
see Fixation by elimination
EMENDATION
any demonstrably intentional change in the original spelling (qv) of an available name [Article 33.2], other than a mandatory change [Article 34]. (Does not include emendation of the scope of application of a name, which = emended diagnosis (qv)).
JUSTIFIED EMENDATION
correction of an incorrect original spelling, takes authorship and date of original spelling [Article 33.2.2].
UNJUSTIFIED EMENDATION
one made for any other reason, such names have their own status in nomenclature, taking authorship and date of their publication [Article 33.2.3].
emendatus, - a, - um, emend.
emendation.
EMENDED DIAGNOSIS
change in the scope of application of a name, involving a change in the diagnosis (qv) of the taxon. Use for : Redefinition. (Not the same as emendation qv).
ENTITY, TAXONOMIC
see Taxon.
ERECT
see Establish.
ERROR
in a name, or other word: an incorrect spelling.
COPYIST'S ERROR
an incorrect spelling made in copying.
INADVERTENT ERROR
an incorrect spelling, such as a lapsus calami, or a copyist's or a printer's error, not intended by the original author [Article 32.5.1].
PRINTER'S ERROR
an incorrect spelling made in type-setting (often called typographical error).
ESTABLISH
used of a name = to make available (qv).
et alia, et al.
and others.
ex
from, according to. Sometimes used within an authority citation (qv).
ex nomine
by or under that name.
ex parte, e.p.
in part. See pro parte.
EXCLUDED NAME
a name that under Article 1.3 cannot be an available name, or one that has been disclaimed.
exclusus, - a, - um, excl.
excluded - used to indicate elements included in a taxon by a previous author or authors, but considered not to belong to it by the writer and excluded from it by him.
EXTANT
- of a taxon: having living representatives
- of a specimen: still in existence
EXTINCT
of a taxon: having no living representatives.
FAMILY GROUP
the highest-ranking group of taxa whose names are fully regulated by the Code. The family group includes taxa at the ranks of superfamily, family, subfamily, tribe, and any other rank below superfamily and above the genus group that may be required, such as subtribe.
fide
on the authority of, or with reference to publication, to a cited published statement.
FIELD IDENTIFICATION
the determination of the taxonomic identity of an individual specimen, under field conditions, often with the aid of keys etc. See also : Identification.
FIRST REVISER, PRINCIPLE OF THE
See Principle of the first reviser.
FIXATION
a general term for determination of name bearing type (qv), whether by designation (qv), or by any other means.
FIXATION BY ELIMINATION
the supposed fixation of a type species by the subsequent transfer of all but one of the originally included nominal species from a genus. Not in itself an available method of type fixation [Article 69.4; but see Article 69.1.1].
FORGOTTEN NAME
see Nomen oblitum.
FORM (FORMA)
- a term that if published after 1960 is deemed to denote infrasubspecific rank but that if published before 1961 is to be interpreted according to Article 45.6.3-4
- those individuals of a species or subspecies differing, in a stated way, from other individuals within the taxon (e.g. larval and adult forms, male and female forms, ecological forms, and seasonal forms)
FORMULAE, ZOOLOGICAL
modifications of available names throughout a taxonomic group by the addition of a standard prefix or suffix in order to indicate that the taxa named are members of that group [Article 1.3.7]. Zoological formulae are excluded from the provisions of the Code. The suffixes of family-group names denote ranks, not taxonomic groups, and do not form zoological formulae.
GENERITYPE
see Type species.
GENEROTYPE
see Type species.
GENOTYPE
a term not recognized by the Code, formerly used for type species, but that should not now be used in zoological nomenclature [Recommendation 67A].
GENUS-GROUP
the taxonomic categories genus and subgenus, including collective groups and ichnotaxa at the genus-group level.
HAPANTOTYPE
one or more preparations consisting of directly related individuals representing distinct stages in the life cycle, which together form the name-bearing type in an extant species of protistan [Article 72.5.4]. A hapantotype, while a series of individuals, is a holotype that must not be restricted by lectotype selection; however, if a hapantotype is found to contain individuals of more than one species, components may be excluded until it contains individuals of only one species [Article 73.3.2].
HIERARCHY, TAXONOMIC
a system of classification based on a sequence of taxonomic categories ranked by their increasing levels of inclusiveness.
HOLOTYPE
a single specimen (except in the case of a hapantotype qv) designated or indicated the type specimen (qv) by the original author at the time of publication of the original description.
HOMONYM
each of two or more identical but independently proposed names for the same or different taxa.
JUNIOR HOMONYM
later published of two homonyms (= a preoccupied name qv).
SENIOR HOMONYM
earlier published of two homonyms.
PRIMARY HOMONYM
each of two or more identical species names, which, at the time of original publication, were proposed in combination (qv) with the same generic name i.e. the species were named for different although homonymous genera.
SECONDARY HOMONYM
each of two or more identical species names, which, at the time of original publication, were proposed in combination (qv) with different generic names, but which, through subsequent transference, have come to bear the same combination of generic and specific name.
HOMONYM CITATION
authorship (qv) for two or more homonyms may be cited using 'non' and/or 'nec' as follows:- A.... Smith 1947 non Jones 1958 nec Brown 1960.
HOMONYMY, PRINCIPLE OF
see Principle of homonymy.
HORIZONTAL CLASSIFICATION
classification (qv) which stresses grouping together taxa in a similar stage of evolution, rather than location on the same phyletic line. See also : Vertical classification.
HYBRID NAME
names of progeny of two individuals belonging to different taxa, names given to hybrids are not normally available (qv), as they are individuals, not populations, and hence not taxa. See Articles 1.3.3, 17, 23.8 for treatment of names given to hybrids and to taxa or hybrid origin.
ibidem, ibid, ib.
the same, in the same place.
ICHNOTAXON
a taxon based on the (fossilized) work of an animal (qv), including fossilized trails, tracks and burrows (trace fossils), made by an animals. Such names are covered by provisions of the current Code.
ICONOTYPE
a drawing or photograph of a type specimen.
IDENTIFICATION
the placing of individual specimens into previously established taxa, by deductive procedures. The determination of the taxonomic identity of an individual. See also : Field identification, Misidentification.
ILLEGITIMATE NAME
see Invalid name.
IMPERFECT NAME
see Nomen imperfectum.
in litteris, in litt.
in correspondence, communicated in writing, used for an unpublished source acknowledgement.
INAPPROPRIATE NAME
a name that denotes a character, a quality, or an origin not possessed by the taxon bearing that name.
incertae sedis
of a taxon - one of uncertain taxonomic position, 'of uncertain seat'.
INCORRECT SUBSEQUENT SPELLING
see Subsequent spelling.
INDICATION
- publication of evidence that a name proposed before 1931 is available, despite the absence of a definition or description [Article 12.2]. See also Typification.
ineditus, - a, - um
unpublished
INFRASPECIFIC NAME
a general term for any name below the rank of species. The term includes subspecific and infrasubspecific names.
INFRASUBSPECIFIC
of a category or name - of lower rank than the subspecies, and, as such, not subject to regulation by the Code (qv) e.g. form, race, variety. Article 1.3.4.
INTERNATIONAL CODE OF ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE
see Code.
INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION
see Commission.
INTERNATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL CONGRESSES
the legislative bodies responsible for the rules of the Code (qv) and for authorization of the activities of the Commission (qv).
INTERPOLATED NAME
a name placed within parentheses
- after a generic name to denote a subgenus
- after a genus-group name to denote an aggregate of species, or
- after a specific name to denote an aggregate of subspecies [Article 6]. Names used in this way are not counted as one of the names in a binomen or trinomen
INVALID NAME
any name (available (qv) or unavailable (qv)) given to a taxon which is not the valid name (qv).
INVALIDATION
the action of making a name invalid (qv). May be brought about by suppression (qv) by the Commission.
INVIOLATE NAME
see Nomen inviolatum.
JUNIOR HOMONYM
the later published of two or more identical but independently proposed names for the same or different taxa. (= a preoccupied name). See also : Homonym.
JUNIOR SYNONYM
the later published of two or more different names applied to one and the same taxon. See also : Synonym.
JUSTIFIABLE EMENDATION
see Emendation.
KEY
a tabulation of diagnostic characters (qv) of taxa in dichotomous couplets to facilitate rapid identification. Key character - a character of special utility in a key.
KINGDOM
the highest ranked category employed in the taxonomic hierarchy. (Editions of the Code prior to 4th referred to a single taxon "Animalia", not widely accepted today, at the rank of kingdom.).
lapsus calami
a 'slip of the pen', an unintentional error, especially in spelling taxonomic names. (Compare : Unjustifiable emendation).
LAW OF HOMONYMY
see Homonymy, principle of.
LAW OF PRIORITY
see Priority, principle of.
LEGITIMATE NAME
see Valid name.
LECTOTYPE
one of several syntypes (qv), designated by any author after the original publication of a species name as the 'type specimen' (qv) for the taxonomic name. Designated only where there was no original holotype (qv) [Article 74].
LIST OF AVAILABLE NAMES IN ZOOLOGY
the cumulative term for those parts of the List of Available Names in Zoology which have been adopted by the Commission under Article 79.
LINE PRECEDENCE
when two different names for the same taxon are first published in the same publication, then the one which appears on the earlier line has line precedence. (See also : Page precedence). Line precedence does not necessarily mean priority as well - this is determined by the action of the first reviser (qv).
loco citato, loc. cit., l.c.
in the place cited, used to avoid repetition of a bibliographic reference already given.
MANDATORY CHANGE
see Change, mandatory
MANUSCRIPT NAME
an unpublished (qv) taxonomic name, may be intended for eventual publication or be used in correspondence or in public speech. Have no standing in nomenclature until they are acceptably published.
mihi, m.
to me, dative singular of ego, I. Used after a name to indicate the writer's responsibility for its proposal.
MISAPPLY
to apply, deliberately or otherwise, a name in a sense which is not correct under the provisions of the Code (e.g. in a manner not in accord with the name-bearing type).
MISIDENTIFICATION
the misapplication of a previously established taxon name to an individual specimen. See also : Identification.
MONOTYPY
a situation where a genus group taxon is established with only one immediately subordinate taxon. e.g. a genus containing only one species. See also Subsequent monotypy.
mutatis characteribus, mut. char.
with the characters changed (by), used in same way as emendatus (qv).
NAKED NAME
see Nomen nudum.
NAME-BEARING TYPE
the type genus, type species, holotype, lectotype, series of syntypes (which, together, form the name- bearing type), neotype, type slide, or hapantotype, that provides the objective standard of reference whereby the application of the name of a taxon can be determined.
natio
race.
NATURAL CLASSIFICATION
classification (qv) based on inferences concerning the phylogenetic relationships of animals (i.e. evolutionary classification).
nec
and not (of), nor (of).
NEOTYPE
a specimen selected as type specimen (qv) subsequent to the original description in cases where the original holotype (qv), or lectotype (qv), or all paratypes (qv), or all syntypes (qv) are lost or destroyed, or suppressed by the Commission.
NEW COMBINATION
see Comb. nov.
NEW NAME
see Nomen novum.
NEW REPLACEMENT NAME
see Nomen novum
NEW SCIENTIFIC NAME
a scientific name, available or unavailable, when first proposed for a taxon.
NEW STATUS
see Status.
nobis, nob., n.
to us, dative plural of ego, I. Used after a name to indicate the author's responsibility for its proposal.
NOMEN AMBIGUUM
ambiguous name, one which has been used so long by different authors in different senses that it has become a persistent cause of error and confusion.
NOMEN COLLECTIVUM
see Collective group.
NOMEN CONSERVANDUM (NOMINA CONSERVATA)
names classed as available and valid by action of the ICZN exercising its Plenary Powers (qv). Includes rulings to conserve junior synonyms in place of rejected forgotten names (nomen oblitum qv). Such names are entered on the Official Lists (qv).
NOMEN CORRECTUM (NOMINA CORRECTA)
corrected names or 'improved' names, available names which are mandatory and allowable emendations of imperfect names (qv) or of taxonomic names higher than family (which are not subject to name form and ending regulations). Do not depend on transfer in taxon rank or assignment. (= an emended name).
NOMEN DUBIUM (NOMINA DUBIA)
doubtful or dubious names, names which are not certainly applicable to any known taxon or for which the evidence is insufficient to permit recognition of the taxon to which they belong. May possess availability conducive to uncertainty and instability.
NOMEN IMPERFECTUM (NOMINA IMPERFECTA)
imperfect names, available names which when originally published met all mandatory requirements of the Code (i.e. met all criteria of availability (qv) - Articles 10-20) but which contained some defect needing correction, such as names incorporating hyphens, diacritical marks or apostrophes, higher taxon names using an incorrectly formed stem.
NOMEN INQUIRENDUM (NOMINA INQUIRENDA)
'names under enquiry'. See Nomen dubium.
NOMEN INVIOLATUM (NOMINA INVIOLATA)
inviolate names, all available names not subject to any sort of alteration from their originally published form i.e. they were correct as originally published and need no correction or emendation (qv).
NOMEN NEGATUM (NOMINA NEGATA)
denied names, unavailable names which are incorrect original spellings (qv) as defined by the Code.
nomen non rite publicatum., nom. non rite public.
name not properly published. See : Unpublished name, Manuscript name.
NOMEN NOVUM (= NOM NOV )
new name which is expressly proposed as a replacement name for a preoccupied name (qv), automatically takes the same type and type locality. (= a replacement name or substitute name for a preoccupied name). Commonly applied to names proposed to replace junior homonyms (qv).
NOMEN NUDUM (NOMINA NUDA)
a Latin term referring to a name that, if published before 1931, fails to conform to Article 12; or, if published after 1930, fails to conform to Article 13. A nomen nudum is not an available name, and therefore the same name may be made available later for the same or a different concept; in such a case it would take authorship and date [Articles 50, 21] from that act of establishment, not from any earlier publication as a nomen nudum.
NOMEN NULLUM (NOMINA NULLA)
null names, unavailable names which as defined by the Code are non demonstrably intentional changes of an original spelling i.e. a form of incorrect subsequent spelling (qv).
NOMEN OBLITUM (NOMINA OBLITA)
forgotten names, senior synonyms which have remained unused in the literature for many years. Have been treated differently by different editions of the Code, and remain unavailable names.
NOMEN PERFECTUM (NOMINA PERFECTA)
perfect names, available names which when originally published met all mandatory requirements of the Code and needed no correction of any kind, but which are validly alterable by change of ending.
NOMEN PROTECTUM
"protected name" applied to a name which has been given precedence over it unused senior synonym or senior homonym relegated to the status of nomen oblitum (qv, and see Article 23.9.2).
NOMEN SUBSTITUTUM (NOMINA SUBSTITUTA)
substitute name, any available name whether new or not, proposed as replacement for any invalid name, such as a junior homonym. A substitute name proposed specifically for a preoccupied name is a nomen novum (qv).
NOMEN TRANSLATUM (NOMINA TRANSLATA)
transferred names, available names which have been altered (usually in endings only), the change depending on transfer from one taxonomic rank to another, or from one taxon to another. e.g. Spirifer ambiguus changed to new combination (qv) Composita ambigua: Orthidae downgraded to Orthinae etc. Authorship and date remains as for original name.
NOMEN TRIVIALE
trivial name, an expression used by Linnaeus and others for the specific name. Applied by some authors in same sense as vernacular name (qv).
NOMEN VANUM (NOMINA VANA)
vain names, available names consisting of unjustified but intentional emendations (qv) of previously published names. Have status in nomenclature with their own authorship and date.
NOMEN VETITUM (NOMINA VETITA)
impermissible names, unavailable names published for divisions of the genus group other than genus and subgenus, which are not accepted by the Code. e.g. a subsection of a subgenus.
NOMENCLATURAL STATUS
of a name, nomenclatural act or work: its standing in nomenclature (i.e. its availability or otherwise, and in the case of a name its spelling, the typification of the nominal taxon it denotes, and its precedence relative to other names).
NOMENCLATURE
the description of new taxa or alterations to the concept of previously described taxa which involve changes in the names of taxa.
NOMINAL TAXON
a named taxon, objectively defined by its type taxon. Thus the nominal family MUSCIDAE is always the one to which its nominal type genus, Musca, belongs.
NOMINATE SUBORDINATE TAXON
a subordinate taxon which bears the same names as its immediate higher taxon (with endings altered according to rank for higher taxa). Thus Grus grus is the nominate species of the genus Grus.
NOMINOTYPICAL TAXON
the nominal taxon at a subordinate rank within the family group, the genus group, or the species group that contains the name-bearing type of a divided taxonomic taxon of that group.
NULL NAME
see Nomen nullum.
NUMERICAL TAXONOMY
study of the relationships of taxa by the application of numerical similarity values to characters so as to rank into categories based on degree of overall similarity.
NUMERICLATURE
an attempt to express the natural order (i.e. classification qv) of animals in numbers, so that each taxon name is represented by a numerical code, the structure of which indicates its taxonomic position, rank and affinities.
OBJECTIVE
demonstrably true, not a matter of individual opinion; for contrast with subjective.
OBJECTIVE SYNONYM
each of two or more different names applied to one and the same taxon based on the same type. See also : Synonym.
OFFICIAL CORRECTION
a correction, issued by the Commission, or an error or omission in a previously published opinion. See also : Direction.
OFFICIAL INDEX
a list of names or works suppressed (qv) or declared invalid by action of the Commission (qv). The following are compiled and maintained:-
- Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Family-Group Names in Zoology
- Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Generic Names in Zoology
- Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Specific Names in Zoology
- Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Works in Zoological Nomenclature
OFFICIAL LIST
a list of names or works which have been conserved (qv) or declared valid by action of the Commission (qv). The following are compiled and maintained:-
- Official List of Family-Group Names in Zoology
- Official List of Generic Names in Zoology
- Official List of Specific Names in Zoology
- Official List of Works Approved as Available for Zoological Nomenclature
see also : List of Available Names in Zoology.
OFFPRINT
see Separate.
opere citato, op. cit.
in the work cited, used to avoid the repetition of part of a bibliographic reference already given.
OPINION
a decision of the Commission (qv) involving a question of application of the Code (qv) to a particular name and situation, published in the Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature.
ORIGINAL DESCRIPTION
the description of a nominal taxon when it is established. See also : Description, Original diagnosis.
ORIGINAL DIAGNOSIS
a formal statement of characters which distinguish a taxon from other similar or closely related taxa, published at the time of proposal of a new taxonomic name. See also : Diagnosis, Original description.
ORIGINAL PUBLICATION
- the work in which a name or nomenclatural act was first published
- of a name or nomenclatural act: publication for the first time
ORIGINAL SPELLING
the original spelling of a name is to be kept as the 'correct original spelling' unless it does not meet the requirements of the Code Article 32.5.
- incorrect original spelling - an original spelling that is incorrect
- multiple original spellings - two or more different original spellings for the same name
ORIGINALLY INCLUDED NOMINAL SPECIES
of a nominal genus-group taxon: the nominal species deemed to be originally included under Article 67.2.
orthographia mutata, orth. mut.
with an altered spelling (by).
PAGE PRECEDENCE
when two names for the same taxon are first published in the same publication, then the one which appears on the earlier page has precedence. Page precedence does not necessarily mean priority (qv) as well - this is determined by the action of the first reviser (qv). See also : Line precedence.
PARALECTOTYPE
any one of the original syntypes (qv) remaining after the selection of a lectotype (qv).
PARATYPE
every specimen in a type series other than the holotype (qv) which were before the author at the time of preparation of the original description and were so designated and indicated there.
PART OF THE LIST OF AVAILABLE NAMES IN ZOOLOGY
(qv). A list, adopted by the Commission under Article 79, of available names in a major taxonomic field.
PERFECT NAME
see Nomen perfectum.
PHENETIC CLASSIFICATION
classification (qv) based on degree of overall similarity.
PHENOTYPE
the total characteristics of an individual (i.e. its appearance) resulting from interaction between its genotype (qv) and its environment.
PLENARY POWERS
the Commission (qv) is empowered by use of its Plenary Powers (qv) to prevent the application of a rule of the Code (qv) where such application in a particular case would disturb the stability or universality or cause confusion in zoological nomenclature. Articles 78, 81.
PLESIOTYPE
a specimen identified by a subsequent author as belonging to a particular species.
POTENTIALLY VALID NAME
an available name which is not objectively invalid.
PRECEDENCE
the order of seniority of available names or nomenclatural acts determined
- by application of the Principle of Priority as specified in Article 23, or
- in the case of simultaneously published names or acts, as specified in Article 24, or
- by a ruling of the Commission using its Plenary Power (qv)
PREPRINT
a work published, with its own specified date of publication (imprint date), in advance of its later reissue as part of a collective or cumulative work. Preprints may be published works for the purposes of zoological nomenclature. See also : Separate.
PREOCCUPIED NAME
the later published of two identical but independently proposed names for the same or different taxa. = Junior homonym (qv).
PREVAILING USAGE
see Usage, prevailing
PRIMARY HOMONYM
each of two or more identical species names, which, at the time of original publication, were proposed in combination with the same generic name i.e. the species were named for different, though homonymous genera. See also : Homonym.
PRINCIPLE OF BINOMINAL NOMENCLATURE
the principle that the scientific name of a species, and not of a taxon at any other rank, is a combination of two names (a binomen, qv); the use of a trinomen (qv) for the name of a subspecies and of uninominal names for taxa above the species group is in accord with the Principle. See Articles 5, 11.4.
PRINCIPLE OF COORDINATION
the principle that within the family group, genus group or species group a name established for a taxon at any rank in the group is deemed to be simultaneously established with the same author and date for taxa based on the same name-bearing type at other ranks in the group [Articles 36, 43, 46].
PRINCIPLE OF THE FIRST REVISER
the principle that the relative precedence of two or more names or nomenclatural acts published on the same date, or of different original spellings of the same name, is determined by the First Reviser [Article 24.2].
PRINCIPLE OF HOMONYMY
the principle that the name of each taxon must be unique. Consequently a name that is a junior homonym of another name must not be used as a valid name [Article 52].
PRINCIPLE OF PRIORITY
the principle that the valid name of a taxon is the oldest available name applied to it (taking into consideration the other provisions of Article 23), provided that the name is not invalidated by any provision of the Code or by any ruling by the Commission [Article 23].
PRINCIPLE OF TYPIFICATION
the principle that each nominal taxon in the family group, genus group or species group has, actually or potentially, a name-bearing type fixed to provide the objective standard of reference by which the application of the name is determined [Article 61] (see Typification).
PRIORITY, OF A NAME OR NOMENCLATURAL ACT
seniority fixed by the date of availability.
PRIORITY, PRINCIPLE OF
see Principle of priority.
pro parte, p. p.
in part, used in author citations to show that only part of a taxon, as defined by a previous author, is being referred to by the writer.
PROPOSAL TO COMMISSION
see Application to commission.
PROTECTED NAME
See Nomen protectum.
PROTISTAN
an organism classified in the Protista. Some such organisms (e.g. those formerly classified as Protozoa) are usually treated as animals for the purposes of nomenclature, and when so treated their names are regulated by the Code [Article 1.1.1].
PROVISIONS
term equivalent to rules.
PUBLICATION
- any published work
- the issuing of a work conforming to Articles 8 and 9
PUBLISHED NAME
any name which is printed and circulated (i.e. meets the criteria of publication as stated by the Code Articles 8 & 9), may be available, unavailable, valid or invalid.
RACE
an infrasubspecific (qv) category which has no status under the Code.
RANK
the level, for nomenclatural purposes, of a taxon in a taxonomic hierarchy (e.g. all families are for nomenclatural purposes at the same rank, which lies between superfamily and subfamily).
RECOMMENDATION BY COMMISSION
published along with the Code (qv), indicate the best procedure in cases not strictly covered by application of the rules. Compliance with them is not mandatory but highly advisable.
REDEFINITION
see Emended diagnosis.
REDESCRIPTION
a more or less complete statement of the observed characters of a taxon, without any special emphasis on those which distinguish it from other closely related taxa, including new or altered information to that usually given in the description (qv).
REDUCTION IN STATUS
see Status.
REFERRAL
transfer of a subordinate taxon from one taxon to another e.g. species removed from one genus and referred to another, genus removed from one family and referred to another.
REFUSAL BY COMMISSION
the Commission (qv) may refuse to use its Plenary Powers (qv) in any given case proposed to it. In such a case the Opinion (qv) rendered is to specify the name(s) to be used in the case in question, and the action (if any) to be taken.
REINSTATE
with reference to a name previously rejected as being a junior secondary homonym: to treat it as a valid name if the conditions of Article 59.4 are met.
REJECT
to set aside, in accord with the provisions of the Code and, in the case of a name, taxonomic judgement,
- a work for the purposes of zoological nomenclature, or
- a name in favour of another name
REJECTED NAME
- a name which, under the provisions of the Code, cannot be used as a valid name and which is set aside in favour of another name
- a name which, as a matter of taxonomic judgement, is either treated as a junior subjective synonym (qv) of a name used as valid or is believed not to be applicable to the taxon under consideration
REPLACEMENT NAME
see Nomen novum and Nomen substitutum.
REPRINT
for the purposes of the Code, the same as a separate (qv).
REVISER, FIRST
see First reviser.
REVISION
the presentation of new material or new interpretations integrated with previous knowledge through summary and reevaluation for a particular taxon.
rite
properly, correctly, according to the rules.
RULES
the Articles of the Code but not titles, Recommendations, and Examples. The rules are mandatory. A term equivalent to provisions.
saltem
at least.
scheda, sched.
label (or a specimen).
SCIENTIFIC NAME
formal nomenclatural designation of a taxon. = Taxonomic name. Conforms to Code Article 1, as opposed to a vernacular name. A scientific name is not necessarily available.
SECONDARY HOMONYM
each of two or more identical species names, which, at the time of original publication, were proposed in combination (qv) with different generic names, but which, through subsequent transference, have come to bear the same combination of generic and specific names. See also : Homonym.
SECTION
- a rank that if treated as a division of a genus or subgenus is deemed to be of subgeneric rank for the purposes of nomenclature [Article 10.4]
- a taxon at the rank of section
secundum, sec.
according to.
sedis incertae
see incertae sedis.
SENIOR HOMONYM
the earlier published of two or more identical but independently proposed names for the same or different taxa. See also : Homonym.
SENIOR SYNONYM
the earlier published of two or more different names applied to one and the same taxon. See also : Synonym.
sensu
a latin term meaning "in the sense of". Often used to refer to the usage of a name by a (cited) author in a sense different from that of the original author or some other previous author.
sensu amplo
see sensu lato.
sensu lato, sens. lat., s.l.
in the broad sense i.e. of a taxon - including all its subordinate taxa and/or other taxa sometimes considered as distinct.
sensu stricto, sens. str., s.s.
in the strict sense, in the narrow sense. Most often used to indicate the nominate subordinate taxon (qv) (e.g. A.... b.... s.s. = A.... b.... b....; A.... s.s. = A.... (A....) etc.). Or it may just indicate exclusion of similar taxa sometimes united with it.
SEPARATE
a copy (reprint or offprint) of a work contained in a periodical, book or other larger work, intended for distribution (usually privately by the author(s) detached from the larger work which contains it but without its own specified date of publication (imprint date). The advance distribution of separates after 1999 does not constitute publication for purposes of zoological nomenclature.
seu
either, or.
sic
this, to signalize exact transcription.
sine
without.
SPECIES GROUP
the taxonomic categories species and subspecies.
SPECIES INDETERMINATA, SP. INDET.
undetermined species, one not identifiable with the description for a name already published. Usually given with a generic name only e.g. A.... sp. indet.
SPECIES INQUIRENDUM (= SPECIES INQUIRENDA)
a species to be queried, a doubtfully identified (qv) species requiring further investigation. See also Nomen inquirendum.
SPECIFIC NAME
the second name in a binomen and in a trinomen [Article 5].
SPELLING, ORIGINAL
see Original spelling.
SPELLING, SUBSEQUENT
see Subsequent spelling.
SPELLING, VARIANT
see Variant spellings.
STABILITY OF NOMENCLATURE
the Preamble of the Code (qv) states 'the object of the Code is to promote stability' - one of the most important rules of the Code. If strict application of the rules of the Code threaten stability in an individual case then application of those rules may be suspended by the Commission (qv) under its Plenary Powers (qv).
STATUS
the status of a taxon indicates the rank (i.e. level in hierarchy of taxonomic categories) to which it belongs e.g. genus, subfamily etc. The status of a taxon may be elevated or reduced (with accompanying ending change when necessary), and this has no bearing on the authorship of the taxon. e.g. Subfamily A....inae Smith 1972 may be elevated (raised) to family A....idae Smith 1972 genus B.... Jones 1960 may be reduced (lowered) to subgenus A.... (B....) Jones 1960
STATUS NOVUS, STAT. NOV.
new status, representing a change in status (qv).
STATUTE OF LIMITATION
see Limitation, statute of.
STRICKLAND CODE
a code of nomenclature prepared by a committee of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, first published in 1842. See also : Code.
SUBJECTIVE
depending on judgement, a matter of individual opinion; for contrast with objective.
SUBJECTIVE SYNONYM
each of two or more different names applied to one and the same taxon based on different types, but regarded as referring to the same taxon by those who hold them to be synonyms. See also : Synonym.
SUBORDINATE TAXON
a taxon at a lower rank than the taxon of the same coordinate group with which it is compared.
SUBSEQUENT MONOTYPY
the situation arising when a nominal genus or subgenus was established before 1931 without any included nominal species, and when only a single taxonomic species denoted by an available name was first subsequently referred to it [Article 69.3].
SUBSEQUENT SPELLING
any change in the original spelling (qv) of a name becomes a subsequent spelling. See Code Article 33.
CORRECT SUBSEQUENT SPELLING
brought about by justified emendations (qv) of the original spelling.
INCORRECT SUBSEQUENT SPELLING
a change in spelling other than a justified emendation (qv).
SUBSPECIFIC NAME
the third name in a trinomen [Article 5.2].
SUBSTITUTE NAME
any available name, whether new or not, used to replace an older available name. See Emendation, New replacement name (Nomen novum), synonym.
SUPPRESSION
a form of invalidation (qv). A name which would be valid (qv) according to strict application of the rules of the Code, may be expressly suppressed by the Commission (qv), under its Plenary Powers (qv), to allow validation of another name, which would not otherwise have been valid (i.e. according to the rules of the Code); converts a previously valid name into an invalid one.
SYNONYM
each of two or more different names applied to one and the same taxon. See also : Junior synonym, Senior synonym, Objective synonym & Subjective synonym
SYNONYMY
- the relationships between different names applied to the same taxon.
- a chronological list of taxonomic names which have been applied to a single taxon, including authors and dates. When this includes bibliographic references for the name = Full Bibliographical Synonymy.
SYNTYPE
each specimen of a type series (qv) from which neither a holotype nor a lectotype has been designated. The syntypes collectively constitute the name-bearing type.
SYSTEMATICS
studies of the kinds and diversity of organisms and of any and all the relationships among them i.e. the science of the diversity of organisms - deals with populations, species and higher taxa.
TAUTONYMY
one and the same name applied both to a genus-group name and to an included species-group name e.g. Bison bison.
ABSOLUTE TAUTONYMY
the identical spelling of a generic or subgeneric name and the specific or subspecific name of one of its originally included nominal species or subspecies [Articles 18, 68.4].
LINNAEAN TAUTONYMY
the identical spelling of a new generic or subgeneric name established before 1931 and a pre- 1758 name cited as a synonym of only one of the species or subspecies originally included in that genus [Article 68.5].
VIRTUAL TAUTONYMY
the nearly identical spelling, or the same origin or meaning, of a generic or subgeneric name and the specific or subspecific name in a binomen or trinomen. Not a term regulated by the Code [but see Recommendation 69A.2].
TAXONOMIC GROUP
a taxon with all its subordinate taxa and their individuals; e.g. the taxonomic group Insecta consists of all insects and their taxa.
TAXONOMIC NAME
see Scientific name.
TAXONOMY
studies of the relationships of taxa, including positional changes which do not involve changes in the names of taxa. See also : Nomenclature, Systematics.
tomo citato, tom. cit.
in the volume cited, used to avoid repetition of part of a bibliographic reference already given.
TOPOTYPE
a specimen collected at the type locality (qv), not necessarily part of the type series and not regulated by the Code.
TOPOTYPICAL POPULATION
population occurring at the type locality (qv) from which the type specimen (qv) was taken.
TRACE FOSSILS
see Work of an animal.
TRANSFERRED NAME
see Nomen translatum.
TRINOMEN
the combination of a generic name, a specific name, and a subspecific name, that together constitute a scientific name (qv) subspecies.
TRIVIAL NAME
see Nomen triviale.
TYPE
the standard of reference for determining the precise application of a name. Each taxon has, actually or potentially, a type.
- Type of a nominal species is a specimen (type specimen)
- Type of a nominal genus is the nominal species (type species)
- Type of a nominal family is the nominal genus (type genus)
TYPE DESIGNATION
determination of the type (qv) of a taxon. (= Type selection).
TYPE GENUS
the type (qv) of a taxon at the family group level (i.e. family, subfamily, tribe etc.) - the nominal genus.
TYPE HORIZON
the geological stratum from which the name-bearing type of a nominal species or subspecies was collected.
TYPE HOST
the host species with which the name-bearing type of a nominal species or subspecies was associated.
TYPE LOCALITY
the geographical (and, where relevant, stratigraphical) location of the occurrence of the population from which the type specimen (qv) (i.e. holotype, lectotype or neotype) was taken. Population occurring at type locality = topotypical population. Specimens collected at type locality = topotypes.
TYPE MATERIAL
a collective term for all type specimens (qv). Zoologists should ensure that such material is transferred as quickly as possible to public institutions where their safety is guaranteed and they are accessible to other workers.
TYPE SELECTION
see Type designation.
TYPE SERIES
the series of specimens which either constitutes the name-bearing type (syntypes) of a nominal species or subspecies or from which the name-bearing type has been or may be designated.
TYPE SPECIES
the nominal species that is the name-bearing type of a nominal genus or subgenus.
TYPE SPECIMEN
any specimen of the type series.
TYPIFICATION, PRINCIPLE OF
see Principle of typification.
typus conservandus, typ. cons.
a type to be conserved.
UNAVAILABLE NAME
a name which does not meet all mandatory provisions of the Code (qv). Articles 10-20 or that is an excluded name under Article 1.3. Has no status in nomenclature. See also : Available name. Unavailable names include nomen nudum, - negatum, - vetitum, - nullum, - oblitum (all qv).
UNJUSTIFIABLE EMENDATION
see Emendation.
UNINOMINAL
consisting of a single name (e.g. names of the family group and of the genus group).
UNPUBLISHED NAME
any name which has not been printed and circulated to meet the criteria of publication as stated by the Code Articles 7-9.
USAGE, PREVAILING
of a name: that usage of the name which is adopted by at least a substantial majority of the most recent authors concerned with the relevant taxon, irrespective of how long ago their work was published.
VAIN NAME
see Nomen vanum.
VALID NAME
the correct name for a given taxon, which may have several available names (qv), one of which (usually the oldest) is chosen as the valid name. The valid name is always an available name (qv) (the reverse is not always true). An invalid name may be either an available or unavailable name.
VALIDATION
the action of making a name valid (qv).
VARIANT SPELLINGS
different spellings of specific or subspecific names that are deemed to be identical for the purposes of the Principle of Homonymy [Article 58].
VARIETY
a term that if published after 1960 is deemed to denote infrasubspecific rank but that if published before 1961 is to be interpreted according to Article 45.6.3-4.
vere
the true.
VERNACULAR NAMES
the colloquial names of taxa i.e. in any language or form other than that of zoological nomenclature. Have no status in nomenclature.
VERTICAL CLASSIFICATION
classification (qv) which stresses common descent and tends to unite ancestral and descendant groups of a phyletic line in a single higher taxon, separating them from contemporaneous taxa having reached a similar grade of evolutionary change. Compare : Horizontal classification.
vide
see.
WORK OF AN ANIMAL
results of the activity but not part of the animal itself e.g. tracks, trails, worm-tubes, borings (but excludes some fossil evidence such as internal moulds, external impressions and replacements). Names given to them are covered by certain rules of the Code Articles 1.2.1, 1.3.6, 10.3, 12.2.8.
ZOOLOGICAL CONGRESSES
see International Zoological Congresses.
ZOOLOGICAL NAME
the scientific name of an animal taxon in binominal nomenclature.
ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE
the system of scientific names for animal taxa and the provisions for the formation, treatment, and use of those names.

Summary of the status of works, names and nomenclatural acts:

ICZN Summary of the status of works, names and nomenclatural acts

From: INTERNATIONAL CODE OF ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE online.

For citation purposes
Agnoli G.L. & Rosa P., Chrysis.net website, interim version 05-Jun-2012 , URL: http://www.chrysis.net/.