Last updated on July 9th, 2020
The species report is structured in the following sections.
Image(s) = picture of a typical adult specimen (= habitus) and/or picture of a typical adult specimen in nature.
Chorology = the map of the geographic distribution of the species.
Map of Italy = the distribution map of Italy, subdivided in its administrative regions, colored on the base of the presence/absence of the species according to personal and bibliographical data (see also the Italian distribution detail).
Icons = links to external sites to search for the given species, among forums (Chrysis.net, Forum Entomologi italiani, HymIS), other textual resources (Google, Yandex) or images (Google Images, Flickr) and videos (YouTube).
Subfamily & Tribe = systematic categories. The Subfamily is a systematic category inferior to the Family (Chrysididae), including a group of Tribes and Genera. The latin termination is -inae and requires the capital letter. Example: Chrysidinae. The Tribe is a systematic category inferior to the Subfamily (Chrysidinae), including a group of Genera. The latin termination is -ini and requires the capital letter. Example: Chrysidini.
Genus & species = systematic categories. The Genus is a systematic category inferior to the Tribe, including a group of closely related species. It’s the first name of the binomial (Genus and species) or trinomial (Genus and species and subspecies) nomenclature introduced by Carolus Linnaeus in 18th century. It requires the capital letter. It doesn’t have a latin termination, but it’s a latinized name. Example: Chrysis, Elampus, Stilbum. The species is a population of organisms whose members share a same series of morphologic characters and are able to reproduce in nature only among themselves and produce fertile offspring. The concept of species was established by Ernst Mayr in 1940. The species is the fundamental category of the whole taxonomical hierarchy and indicates the limit of the organisms able to reproduce. It is always written with the low case. The species name, Latin or latinized, should match with the Genus name. The subspecies is a systematic category inferior to the species, indicating a group of organisms geographically isolated from the other populations of the species and showing sometimes morphologic differences, but anyway able to reproduce with the other specimens of the species when the subspecific populations come to contact. Author and year indicate the Author who firstly described the species through a paper published in a given year.
Species group = it’s a sub-aggregate of a Genus, including a limited assemblage of closely associated species. It’s sometimes used instead of the Subgenus level.
Original combination = it’s the way the species or the subspecies was originally described by its Author, who decided to refer it to a Genus (or a higher class) not necessarily conserved according to actual interpretations.
Type series = lists the typical specimens (holotypus, allotypus, paratypes, etc.) and the placement of the typical specimens in public (Mus. = Museum) or private (Coll.) collections.
Original description = it’s the text of the original description of the species/subspecies from the Author, according to the original publication.
Synonyms and subspecies = one or more names which have been given to the same species by other Authors in time; the earliest name takes generally priority.
Systematic notes = observations and comments on the systematics of the taxon.
Size (mm) = size of the adult, in millimeters.
Type locality = the location indicated for the typical series in the original description.
Kimsey & Bohart = the locations indicated in: Kimsey L.S. & Bohart R., 1991 – The Chrysidid wasps of the World. Oxford Press, 652 pp.
Linsenmaier = the locations indicated by Linsenmaier (various years).
Other Authors = the locations indicated by other valued Authors.
Chorology = the known geographic distribution of the species, described by a distribution pattern called chorological category. Examples: W-Mediterranean distribution, Oriental distribution, etc. At present time a chorologic classification of the Italian Chrysidids doesn’t exist. Our suggestion is based on the species listed by Rosa (2002, 2005, 2006).
Italian distribution according to the Checklist of the species of the Italian Fauna
The Checklist delle specie della fauna italiana reports the presence of the species in four italian macro-regions (North, South, Sicily and Sardinia), as decided by the Italian Checklist Commission.
(1) Strumia F., 1995 – Hymenoptera Chrysididae. In: Minelli A, Ruffo S., La Posta S (eds). Checklist delle specie della fauna italiana, 99. Calderini, Bologna.
(2) Strumia F., 2001 – Hymenoptera Chrysididae. Aggiornamento alla Checklist delle specie della fauna italiana. Boll. Soc. entomol. ital., 133 (I): 88-92.
(3) Strumia F., 2005 – Hymenoptera Chrysididae. In: Ruffo S. & Stoch F. (eds.), Checklist e distribuzione della fauna italiana. 10.000 specie terrestri e della acque interne. Memorie del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Verona, II Serie. Sezione Scienze della Vita 16: 269-270 + CD-ROM.
Endemism = the term is used here to indicate that the species lives only in Italy or in a specifica region/area of Italy.
Italian distribution by Administrative Region (Literature records, Personal evidences and other sources)
Here you find the presence/absence of the species in the different Administrative Regions of Italy (from North to South): Piemonte, Valle d’Aosta, Lombardia, Trentino A.A., Veneto, Friuli V.G., Liguria, Emilia Romagna, Toscana, Umbria, Marche, Lazio, Abruzzo, Molise, Campania, Puglia, Basilicata, Calabria, Sicilia, Sardegna, including the following smaller islands:
- Toscana: Gorgona, Capraia, Elba, Pianosa, Giglio, Montecristo, Giannutri.
- Lazio: Ponza, Ventotene, Palmarola.
- Campania: Ischia, Procida, Capri.
- Puglia: San Domino, Caprara, San Nicola.
- Sicilia: Is. Eolie (Stromboli, Panarea, Alicudi, Filicudi, Salina, Lipari, Vulcano), Is. Egadi (Marettimo, Favignana, Levanzo), Ustica, Pantelleria, Lampedusa.
- Sardegna: Arcip. La Maddalena, Tavolara, Asinara, San Pietro, Sant’Antioco.
The columns for presence/absence report the data drawn from:
- the Literature (Literature records)
- the website Forum Entomologi Italiani (FEI records)
- private collections (Personal records)
FEI and Personal records may contain unpublished data.
Polyphagous = if the species is a parasite of more than one systematic group (i.e. Sphecids + Vespids).
[Family] = the Family of insects parasitized by the species and sharing the same environment. Data drawn from the literature show the bibliographical references in brackets.
Notes on Hosts = unpublished notes about the hosts.
Habitat = the environmental features known for the species, i.e. known plants and microhabitats. Data drawn from the literature show the bibliographical references in brackets.
Plants for rest/refuge = the flowers and plants used by the species for rest and or for refuge. Data drawn from the literature show the bibliographical references in brackets.
Parasites = the parasites of the species. Data drawn from the literature show the bibliographical references in brackets.
Biological notes = observations and comments drawed from personal field observations.
Copyright, Authorship, and Ownership statements
All text and images of this page are copyright ©️ Chrysis.net unless otherwise stated - please see individual cases for authorship and copyright details. The specimens pictured are from the authors' or other collaborators' personal collections and from the collections of various museums. Unless otherwise specified, the whole content of this web site is for personal, non-commercial, scientific, and educational purposes given proper accreditation to the page from which they were derived are provided, and under Chrysis.net Terms and Conditions.
For citation purposes
Agnoli G.L. & Rosa P. (2021) Database of the Italian Chrysididae: HELP, in: Chrysis.net website. Interim version 18 January 2021, URL: https://www.chrysis.net/database-of-the-italian-chrysididae-help/.